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Color Loss in the shape of triangles

This report was written for the carpet mill.

THE CARPET
FIBER/ ID METHOD:    Nylon - Anionic/Cationic Dyed-According To Manufacturer
FIBER HUE:    Brown & Tan
CONSTRUCTION:    Tufted Loop
YARN STYLE:    Level Loop
SQUARE YARDAGE:    1006
BACK SYSTEM:    Conventional Tufted
PRIMARY BACKING:    Polypropylene
SECONDARY BACKING:    Polypropylene
THE INSTALLATION
LOCATION TYPE:    Commercial
TYPE OF BUSINESS:    High-Rise Office
METHOD:    Stretch-In
SUBFLOOR:    Concrete
AREA INSTALLED:     Lobby, Walkways, & Offices
USE & MAINTENANCE INFORMATION AT THE TIME OF INSPECTION
LITERATURE RECEIVED WITH PURCHASE: No
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES        60
TEMPERATURE: 74.0F - 23.3 C RH 52%
ENTRY-MATS?    In the Downstairs Lobby
SOIL:    None Noticed
HEATING TYPE:    Central Force Air Gas
COOLING TYPE:    Central - Electric
CLEANING:    Never Been Cleaned
REASON FOR COMMISSION
To determine the cause of spots or discoloration in the carpet.
THE REPORT
Site Conditions and Geographical Information
The carpet was installed on the second floor of a 10 story building located on the western edge of the Los Angeles Basin, two miles from the Pacific Ocean. The condition and maintenance of the property was good.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION MADE TO THE INSPECTOR
The actual occupant of this floor and the owner of the building was the ACME Farms Corporation.
Light and dark spots were noted immediately after the installation. The light colored spots were in the shape of triangles, but these shapes became less discernible with time. Cleaning attempts were made on the light spots with limited success. The dark spots became less noticeable with time. No other cleaning attempts had been made at the time of the inspection.
DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM AREA BY THIS INSPECTOR
Most spots were not easily discernible. The triangle shape spots were lighter than the surrounding carpet. The darker spots had gray to brown hues and were globular in shape. Most noticeable to this inspector were two spots.

color_loss_triangle.jpg (45982 bytes)

One was a light spot in the main lobby that was triangular in shape, measured approximately three inches in width.
The second was located in the president’s office next to a plant. This spot was oblong with irregular edges and had a brown hue.
No spot had any apparent change of hand nor an odor that could be detected. They all remained visible when viewed in different directions.
ON-LOCATION FIELD TESTING
An inspection lamp was used for closer evaluation and the spots were still noticeable under this lamp.
An ultra-violet light was used to draw a reflection from substances with optical brightening agents. The result of this test revealed that there was no reflection.
Numerous moisture tests were performed using a Delmhorst Moisture Sensor. The results of these tests revealed that there were no moisture indications in the spots.
Using a digital type pH meter, pH tests were taken in the brown spot in the presidents’ office. The test results were as follows:
affected areas    7.3    7.4    7.3     Ave. 7.33
non-affected areas    6.9    7.0    7.0     Ave. 6.97
A bleach test was performed on the light or white spot in the lobby using a test kit from COLOR MATCH SYSTEMS and revealed that there were no bleaching agents in the light spot.
A Paint Oil & Grease Remover professional spotting agent was applied to the on the light spot in the lobby. The result of this test showed that there was no improvement to the appearance of the spot.
A detergent test using a small portable extractor and Chempec’s Formula 77 was used on the dark spot in the President’s office. The initial appearance showed some improvement.
THE ISSUE OF THIS REPORT
The question that I have been asked to address is: what has caused the spots?
GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING THE ISSUE
Spots and stains can occur when:
1. problems are inherent in manufacturing
2. foreign substances have been spilt on to the carpet
3. lighting conditions create shadows on the carpet
INDUSTRY STANDARDS & DEFINITIONS
The Carpet & Fabricare Institutes says this in their rules section of their spotting manual:
APPEARANCE - Spots that are lighter than the surrounding unaffected area are the result of color loss. Spots that are darker than the surrounding unaffected areas are the result of something added. Spots that end-up changing in different light and diminish or disappear in direct intense light are the result of texture variations, usually from over aggressive mechanical action.
THE INSPECTOR'S ANALYSIS
LIGHT COLORED TRIANGLES--The inspection lamp test rules out the possibility that these spots were the result of shadows. Since the bleach test indicates that the spots were not created by bleach and the spots were lighter than the surrounding carpet; the triangle shaped spots were the result of color loss. Since it was reported that part of the dye system was cationic, these spots may be the result of anionic detergent reacting with the dye. Laboratory testing would be necessary to confirm this as a conclusion.
DARK HUE, GLOBULAR SPOTS--The brown spots in the president’s office could possibly be related to material from the plant and the other dark hue spots would also be the result of common spills and accidents. Detergent testing indicates that it could be removed. The pH testing indicates that the spot and stains were not pH related.
CONCLUSION
Dark spots in the carpet in question were related to accidents that occurred during installation., based upon, background information, tests and observations.
Light color spots are the result of color loss not related common spills or accidents based upon testing and shape.