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WOVEN & KNIT RESIDENTIAL UPHOLSTERY FABRIC STANDARDS & GUIDELINES
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WOVEN & KNIT

RESIDENTIAL

UPHOLSTERY FABRIC

STANDARDS &

GUIDELINES

 

JOINT INDUSTRY

FABRIC STANDARDS

COMMITTEE

INTRODUCTION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

When the Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines Committee was formed in the mid 70's, it was agreed by all concerned that standards and guidelines were needed for woven and knit upholstery fabrics. In 1979, the Joint Industry Committee completed the original work on woven upholstery fabrics and in 1980 published the results in Woven Upholstery Fabric Standard" by the Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines Committee. At that time, a Joint Industry Sub Committee was formed to accomplish the same with knit upholstery fabrics. That objective was accomplished in 1983. Both the woven and knit standards and guidelines publications have been reviewed and updated since the original publication and were combined into a single publication for user convenience and easy reference.

The Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines Committee maintains organization and fairness to both users and producers of upholstery fabrics alike by establishing voluntary guidelines and standards, voted upon by all members. Only one voting ballot per member company is allowed. Negative ballots and criticisms are welcomed, with each negative ballot being brought before the Committee for reconciliation. A 75% majority is necessary to pass any issue, but the Committee makes every effort to obtain unanimity of all issues. Although balance of membership and voting has provided a basis for the standards and guidelines to reflect a fair and acceptable "states of the art and science. in both the furniture and textile industries, it is necessary to point out that the standards, guidelines, and practices presented herein are purely voluntary and in no manner are to be considered a legal document or contract.

The Committee, through its continuing reviews and refinements, strives to keep test methods and performance criteria updated to reflect field performance of fabrics. It is strongly recommended that because of the dynamics of rapidly changing technology and market requirements, the guidelines, standards, and industry practices presented herein should be completely reviewed and reevaluated a minimum of every two years.

Finally, the chairman would like to thank and commend every member of the Joint Industry Standard Committee for their diligence and expertise in the following voluntary standards and guidelines which will serve as a valuable base of reference for the furniture and textile industries alike.

 

THE JOINT INDUSTRY FABRIC

STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES COMMITTEE

Participating Member Companies, Institutions, and Associations

3M

Action Industries

AFMA

Alexvale Furniture

Ametex Fabrics

Amoco Fabrics & Fibers

Applied Textiles

Bench Craft

Berkline Corporation

Bernhardt Furniture

Broyhill Furniture

Burlington House Upholstery

Carolina Mills

Carson's

Collins and Aikman

Craftex

Culp

Diversified Testing

Douglas Furniture

Dow Chemical

Drexel Heritage

Dupont

Elizabeth Weaving

Ethan Allen

F. Schumacher

Fabric Protection

Fiber Shield

Flexsteel

General Latex & Chemical

Guardian Protection Products

Guardsman Products

Guilford Mills

Guilford of Maine

Hercules

Herman Miller

Hickory Hill Furniture

Hoffman Mills

Hugh Talley Co.

J. B. Martin

Joan Fabrics

LaFrance Industries

La Z Boy Chair Co.

Malden Mills

Mastercraft

Mayo Manufacturing

Merchandise Testing

Microfibres

Miles

Milliken & Co.

MS Forest Products Lab

Mohasco Upholstered Furniture

Monsanto

Mt. Hope Finishing

Norwalk Furniture

Para Chem Southern

Pennsylvania House

Philips Weaving Mills

Quaker Fabric

Rapier Mills

Richloom Fabrics

River Oaks

Riverside Furniture

Rossville/Chromatex

Rowe Furniture

Schnadig Corporation

Schweiger Industries

Simmons Upholstered Furniture

Smith Brothers of Berne

Stainsafe Company

Stanton Industries

Steelcase

Sunbury Textile

Synthetic Finishing

Valdese Weavers

Vanguard Furniture

Vartest Labs

Wellington Sears

West Point Pepperell

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

CURRENT

CHARACTERISTIC OR PROPERTY REF13:RENCE CHAPTER ISSUE

Abrasion Guideline 1 6/94

Bow & Skew Standard 2 6/94

Categorization of Woven 8` Knit Fabrics Standard 3 6/94

Cleanability Guideline 4 6/94

(Colorfastness to water and colorfastness to solvent)

Colorfastness to Cracking Standard 5 6/94

Colorfastness to Light Standard 6 6/94

Colorfastness to Bunt Gas Fumes Standard 7 6/94

Color and Shade Guideline 8 6/94

Dimensional Stability Standard 9 6/94

Elongation Woven Standard/ 10 6/94

Knit Guideline

Flammability Standard 11 6/94

Flaws & Defects Standard 12 6/94

General Roll & Fabric Condition Guideline 13 6/94

Pattern Repeat Standard 14 6/94

Yarn Count Guideline 15 6/94

Pilling Guideline 16 6/94

Retail Applied Fabric Treatment Guideline 17 6/94

Roll Length Standard 18 6/94

Roll Tag Information Guideline 19 6/94

Roll Width Standard 20 6/94

Seam Breaking Strength Standard 21 6/94

Seam Integrity Standard 22 6/94

Shedding Guideline 23 6/94

Stain Repellency Standard 24 6/94

Tear Strength Standard 25 6/94

Tensile Strength Standard 26 6/94

Fiber Migration Guideline 27 6/94

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

The characteristic or property given in the Table of Contents is expressed as being a Guideline or Standard. Each category is listed below with a definition for each.

STANDARDS

Standard—The performance or characteristic of an upholstery fabric that can be measured using widely accepted test methods and test apparatus. Criteria established is necessary for predicting the performance of an upholstery fabric.

Bow & Skew Elongation (Woven) Seam Breaking Strength
Categorization of Woven & Knit Fabrics Flammability Seam Integrity
Colorfastness to Crocking Flaws & Defects Stain Repellency
Colorfastness to Light Pattern Repeat Tear Strength
Colorfastness to Burnt Gas Fumes Roll Length Tensile Strength
Dimensional Stability Roll Length

 

GUIDELINES

Guideline - That property or characteristic of an upholstery fabric that cannot be measured using widely accepted test methods and test apparatus. It shall be understood that if numerical values are used as guidelines herein, they shall be considered to be 'recommendations only" as variations in the magnitude and/or accuracy of these numerical values may represent vagaries of the test method or test apparatus.

Abrasion

Colorfastness

Color & Shade

Elongation (knit)

Fiber Migration

General Roll & Fabric Condition

Pilling Retailer

Applied Fabric Treatment

Roll Tag Information

Shedding

1.0. ABRASION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

1.1. Reference ASTM D4157 (Oscillatory Cylinder Method) for description of apparatus and preparation of specimens.

 

1.2. Test Procedure

Determine surface abrasion of upholstery fabrics in accordance with ASTM D4157 with the following modifications:

1. Use a clean wire screen abradant, stainless steel, 50 x 70 mesh (210 x 297 mm backed by a 14 mesh (1.4 x 1.4rmm) to an 18 mesh (1.0 x 1.0 mm) screen. It is recommended that the wire screen abradant be cleaned regularly with a solvent such as perchloroethylene.

2. The tension of the specimen shall be 4 Ibf (18N) and the compression force shall be 3 Ibf (13N).

3. Test at least two specimens in the warp direction and at least two in the filling direction. Note: When testing fabrics with high elongation characteristics, masking tape should be adhered to the back of the test samples to better stabilize them.

4. The specimen configuration should be of the modified layout per the attachment "A".

5. Woven specimens should be placed upon a foam substrate the same size as the fabric specimen. The foam should be 1.8 Ibs/cubic foot conventional, combustible modified foam, ILD 28 35 with a thickness of 1/4 inch.

 

1.3. Evaluation

In evaluating the fabric specimen, the outside 1/4 inch of the specimen should be disregarded in the evaluation.

The test should be run for either 15,000 cycles, or a rating of category "1" (very obvious wear) is reached.

At the end of 3000, 6000, 9000, 12,000, and 15,000 cycles (double rubs), the fabric specimen should be examined for loose threads and wear (slight discoloration from the stainless steel screen on light colored fabrics is disregarded). The fabric should be rated according to the following scale at each cycle level of 3000, 6000, 9000, 12,000, and 15,000.

 

 

1.0. ABRASION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Rating of Pile Upholstery Fabrics

1 = Very obvious wear - backing easily visible

2 = Obvious wear - slight evidence of backing showing

3 = Noticeable wear - may or may not be objectionable

4 = Very slight wear - not objectionable

5 = No apparent wear

 

Rating of Flat Woven Upholstery Fabrics

1 = Very obvious wear - 10 or more yarn breaks

2 = Obvious wear - 5 to 9 yarn breaks, severe appearance change

3 = Noticeable wear - 1 to 4 yarn breaks, medium appearance change

4 = Very slight wear - no yarn breaks, slight appearance change

5 = No apparent wear

The rating levels are to be used as definitions only. Each manufacturer is responsible for setting acceptance levels at the rating and cycle level appropriate for their company.

1.4. Discussion

Realizing the varying factors involved with the available test methods for abrasion, the Oscillatory Cylinder Method shall be the recommended method for information purposes rather than acceptance testing.

All of the test methods and equipment presently available are not necessarily accurate in indicating how certain fabrics will perform in actual use. The abrasion resistance is affected by many factors, some of which are fiber types. yarn structure, fabric construction, and the type and amount of finishing material added to the fibers c: yarns of the fabric.

Because of the conditions mentioned above, inter laboratory evaluations have demonstrated that although the appearance of tested samples may be very similar, the interpretation of the results by technicians from each lab may vary greatly. It should be noted that the judgment of "appreciable wear is a very subjective judgment; however, operators can become proficient with experience, especially if this "experience" also relates to: (1) a close working relationship with one's vendors' lab technicians running the same test, and (2) long term field experience related to laboratory data.

It should also be noted that pile fabrics can exhibit a condition during an abrasion test called "matting" Generally, matting should not be construed as "appreciable wears." However, matting can be construed as appreciable wear when most of the pile cannot be re erected using a comb or brush.

Shedding or pilling for the test samples shall not be construed as appreciable wear unless the circumstance is unquestionably obvious.

 

 

 

1.0. ABRASION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

1.5. The following options may be used if agreed upon by buyer and seller:

1. Rating Scale

1 = Very obvious wear

2 = Noticeable wear

3 = No apparent wear

2. The foam pad can be used up to three times.

3. The specimen configuration can be of other shapes and sizes.

 

1.6. Sources For Foam For Modified Wyzenbeek Abrasion Test

Description: 1.8 Ibs./cu.ft. conventional combustible modified foam, ILD 28 35 with a thickness of 1/4 inch.

 

E.R. Carpenter Company
P.O. Box 879
Conover, NC 28613 (919) 758 6464
Welsh Paper
112 Franklin Park Avenue
Youngville, NC 27596 (919) 788 7272
Jimmy Puckett Foam
5197 Oxford Drive
Winston Salem, NC 27104
J & L Fabrics (919) 237 2294
Route 2, Box 463A
Wilson, NC 27893

 

 

ABRASION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Template for

Wyzenbeek Abrasion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0. BOW AND SKEW

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

2.1. Discussion

It should be noted and understood that making aesthetically acceptable upholstered furniture using fabrics with more than the allowable levels of bow and skew is virtually impossible in "stack cutting" requires much more labor input in "single ply cutting". Also, the use of fabric in which bow and skew exceeds the Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines Committee's stated minimum requirements becomes a matter to be negotiated between buyer and seller.

With regard to upholstered furniture, bow and skew are properties which are evaluated visually with reference to some nearby straight line. Thus, the test method recommended herein uses a perpendicular straight line as a reference rather than a filling line or something else in the structure. Note that proper upholstery is essential in controlling bow and skew of the fabric on the furniture. The bow or skew seen on the upholstered furniture may or may not be due to bow or skew of the fabric.

2.2. Definitions

Bow is defined as the greatest distance, measured parallel to the selvages, between a filling or course yarn, stripe, or dominant line and a straight line perpendicular to the selvages.

Skew (bias) is defined as the distance measured parallel to and along a selvage between the point at which a filling or course yarn, stripe, or dominant line meets this selvage and a perpendicular line to the selvage from the point at which the same filling yarn, stripe, or dominant line meets the other salvage.

2.3. Method of Measurement for Bow

1. Lay at least three yards of fabric, without tension, on a horizontal surface.

2. Place a straight edge across the fabric perpendicular to the selvages at a point where a filling or course yarn, stripe, or dominant line begins at the selvage.

3. Measure the greatest distance between the perpendicular line and the yarn, stripe, or dominant line at any point across the width of the fabric (see Figure 1).

4. Repeat this procedure at least three places along the length of the fabric and report the average maximum bow along with the location of the occurrence.

 

 

2.0. BOW AND SKEW

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

FIGURE 1. - METHOD OF MEASUREMENT FOR MAXIMUM DISTORTION DUE TO BOW

 

2.4. Method of Measurement for Skew (Bias)

1. Lay the fabric, without tension, on a horizontal surface at least three yards long.

2. Place a straight edge across the fabric perpendicular to the selvages at a point where a filling or course yarn, stripe, or dominant line begins at the selvage.

3. Measure the distance parallel to and along a selvage between the point at which the yarn, stripe, or dominant line meets this selvage and the perpendicular line to the selvage from the point at which the same yarn, stripe, or dominant line meets the opposite selvage (See Figure 2).

4. Repeat this procedure at least three places along the length of the fabric and report the average maximum bias.

 

 

 

2.0. BOW AND SKEW

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

FIGURE 2. METHOD OF MEASUREMENT FOR MAXIMUM DISTORTION DUE TO SKEW (BLAS)

 

2.5. Standard

All patterned WOVEN fabrics shall not exceed more than 0.5" of bow or 1.0" of skew.

All patterned KNIT fabrics shall not exceed more than 0. 75" of bow or 1.0" of skew.

 

 

3.0. CATEGORIZATION OF FABRICS

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

3.1. Woven Upholstery Fabrics

Category I: Flat fabrics except lightweight, printed cottons of less than eight ounces per square yard.

Category II: Woven, tufted, and flocked pile fabrics.

Category III: Light weight, printed cotton fabrics less than eight ounces per square yard.

 

3.2. Knitted Upholstery Fabrics

Coarse Gauge Knits - Weft Insertion and Rachel knits constructed with 15 or less wales and courses per inch.

Fine Gauge Knits - Weft Insertion and Rachel knits constructed with more than 15 wales and courses per inch.

 

4.0. COLORFASTNESS TO WATER AND SOLVENTS

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

4.1. All upholstered furniture manufacturers should clearly identify the appropriate method of cleaning by the prominent display of a colorfastness code either permanently attached to the upholstered piece or as a part of the hang tag.

4.2. Each manufacturer of upholstery fabric shall identify each style and color manufactured with a colorfastness code as follows:

 

W - Spot clean only with water based shampoo or foam upholstery cleaner. Pretest a small, inconspicuous area before proceeding. Do not overwet. Do not use solvents to spot clean. Pile fabrics may require brushing with a non metallic, stiff bristle brush to restore appearance. Hot water extraction or steam cleaning is not a recommended cleaning method. Cushion covers should not be removed and laundered. To prevent overall soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing with a non metallic, stiff bristle brush to remove dust and grime is recommended. When cleaning a spill, blot immediately to remove spilled material. Clean spots or stains from the outside to the middle of the affected area to prevent circling. Use a professional furniture cleaning service when an overall soiled condition has been reached.

 

4.0. COLORFASTNESS TO WATER AND SOLVENTS

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

S - Spot clean only with a water free dry cleaning solvent. Pretest a small, inconspicuous area before proceeding. Do not saturate. DO NOT USE WATER. Pile fabrics may require brushing with a non metallic, stiff bristle brush to restore appearance. Cushion covers should not be removed and dry cleaned. To prevent overall soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing with a non metallic, stiff bristle brush to remove dust and grime is recommended. When cleaning a spill, blot immediately to remove spilled material. Clean spots or stains from the outside to the middle of the affected area to prevent circling. Overall cleaning by a professional furniture cleaning service only is recommended.

WS - Spot clean with upholstery shampoo, foam from a mild detergent, or mild dry cleaning solvent. Pretest a small, inconspicuous area before proceeding. Do not saturate. Pile fabrics may require brushing with a non metallic, stiff bristle brush to restore appearance. Hot water extraction or steam cleaning is not a recommended cleaning method. Cushion casings should not be removed and laundered or dry cleaned. To prevent overall soiling, frequent vacuuming or light brushing with a non metallic, stiff bristle brush to remove dust and grime is recommended. When cleaning a spill, blot immediately to remove spilled material. Clean spots or stains from the outside to the middle of affected area to prevent circling. Use a professional furniture cleaning service when an overall soiled condition has been reached.

X - Clean only by vacuuming or light brushing with a non metallic, stiff bristle brush. DO NOT USE ANY WATER OR SOLVENT BASED CLEANER.

NOTE: The colorfastness code refers to the ability of the yarns in a particular fabric to remain colorfast to either water, solvent, or both and does not reflect the ability of that fabric to withstand specific cleaning methods. The above given methods are "guideline" procedures used to evaluate color changes within the cleaned areas under standardized conditions. The results are not necessarily directly related to consumer cleaning with water base cleaners or solvent base cleaners, but the codes will give reliable information on the fastness of the fabric coloration to water and solvent, the principal agents that cause color migration and bleeding.

4.3. Test Methods

Colorfastness to Water and Solvent - AATCC Method 107 (Reference: ASTM D3597)

4.4. Standard

Colorfastness to Water

The minimum standard for color change shall be Class 4.

The minimum standard for staining shall be Class 3.

 

Colorfastness to Solvent

The minimum standard for color change shall be Class 4.

The minimum standard for staining shall be Class 3.

4.0. COLORFASTNESS WATER AND SOLVENTS

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

4.5. Evaluation

In all cases, the AATCC Gray Scale is to be used for evaluation.

5.0. COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

5.1. Purpose

The purpose of this test is to determine the degree of color which may be transferred from the surface of the upholstery fabric to other surfaces by rubbing.

5.2. Test Methods

AATCC Test Method 8 (Reference ASTM D3597) is to be used for solid shades. Reference AATCC Test Method 8 for description of apparatus, preparation of specimens, test procedure, and evaluation instructions.

 

AATCC Test Method 116 (Rotary Vertical Crockmeter for Printed Goods) is to be used for printed fabrics. Reference Test Method l 16 for description of apparatus, preparation of specimens, test procedure, and evaluation instructions.

5.3. Classification of Fabric for Crocking

Use the AATCC Gray Scale for Staining or the AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale for classification of fabrics for crooking.

Using the class definition given in the AATCC test method, assign the appropriate class number for the amount of color transfer exhibited.

5.4. Standard

The minimum standard for dry Crocking shall be Class 4.

The minimum standard for wet cracking shall be Class 3.

6.0. COLORFASTNESS TO LIGHT

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

6.2. Report

 

Reference AATCC Test Method 16 (Reference ASTM D3597) for description of appropriate apparatus, and instructions for preparation of specimens, test procedure, and evaluation.

 

Test Series:

A Carbon Arc Lamp, Continuous Light

B Sunlight (Discontinued)

C Daylight

D Carbon Arc Lamp, Alternate Light and Dar

E Water Cooled Xenon Arc Lamp, Continuous Light

F Water Cooled Xenon Arc Lamp, Alternate Light and Dark

G Colorfastness Above L 7 (Discontinued)

H Air Cooled Xenon Arc Lamp, Continuous Light

I Air Cooled Xenon Arc Lamp, Continuous Light

J Air Cooled Xenon Arc Lamp, Alternate Light and Dark

6.1. Test Methods

The Xenon Arc Lamp Method (16E or 16H) shall be the preferred method for testing colorfastness to light.

In reporting light fastness, always state the method used as results may vary depending upon test method.

6.3. Standard

The minimum standard for color change after 40 fading units (hours) shall be Class 4.

7.0. COLORFASTNESS TO BURNT GAS FUMES

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

7.1. Purpose

The purpose of the test is to determine the resistance of the color of the upholstery fabric to color loss when exposed to burnt gas fumes.

 

 

7.0. COLORFASTNESS TO BURNT GAS FUMES

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

7.2. Test Method (Reference ASTM D3597)

Reference AATCC Test Method 23 for description of apparatus, preparation of specimens, test procedure, and evaluation instructions.

7.3. Evaluation of Fabric for Colorfastness to Burnt Gas Fumes

Use the Gray Scale for Color Change to evaluate fabrics for color change to burnt gas fumes. Using the class definitions given in the AATCC test method, assign the appropriate class number for the amount of color change exhibited.

7.4. Standard

The minimum standard for color change after two cycles shall be 4.

8.0 SHADE VARIATION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

8.1. Shade Variation Within a Single Roll

The color and shade of any upholstery fabric shall not vary within the roll. Variation of color or shade from selvage to selvage is not permissible. Streaking, striation, or any other visual inconsistencies in color or shade are nor acceptable or permissible.

When a roll of upholstery fabric contains more than one piece, each piece within the roll shall come from the same dye lot or production lot.

 

8.2. Shade Variation from Roll to Roll

Roll to roll shade marching shall conform to commercial tolerances established between buyer and seller. Inordinate difficulties in shade control should be communicated to the fabric purchaser by the fabric manufacturer a: the time of original agreement to purchase.

 

8.3. Shade Variation in Pile Fabrics

Since Direction of 1_ . ~ of pile fabrics can create apparent shading problems, finishing and handling procedures shall be ~ such that the direction of lay of the pile is consistent within the roll and from roll to roll. Packaging, stowage, shipping, and handling of pile fabrics shall be such that pile distortion within a roll is at a minimum No curling or wrinkling should occur in any direction when the fabric is spread, without distortion. on the cutting table.

 

9.0. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

9.1. Reference ASTM D3597, Section 7.5 for both woven and knit upholstery fabrics.

9.2. Dimensional Stability to Water

Preparation of Specimens:

Cut three specimens 12" by 12" (305 by 305 mm) and mark them with 10" (254 mm) gauge distances both in the warp or wale and filling or course directions.

Test Method:

1. Place the marked specimens in a pan at least 14" by 14" by 6" (356 by 356 by 152 mm) containing a sufficient volume of 80 F - / 5 F(26 C +/ - 3 C) distilled or demineralized water to cover them completely in their fully opened flat state. The water should contain 0.05 % nonionic wetting agent.

2. After being completely submerged in water for 10 minutes +/ - 1 minute, remove the specimens and individually lay them out flat on horizontal, ventilated screens and allow them to dry in the prevailing room atmosphere (approximately 24 hours). Do not extract or wring out the specimens prior to drying.

3. After drying, measure the distance between the gauge marks in each fabric direction. Separately report the average dimensional change in each direction.

Evaluation and Reporting:

Calculate the shrinkage or gain as directed in Equations 1 and 2.

1. S = [(A - B)/A] x 100

2. G = [(B - A)/A] x 100

Where: A = distance between gauge marks before wetout, 10 inches (254 mm)

B = distance between gauge marks after wetout and drying

G = % gain (In reporting the gain, the percent change shall have the prefix "+"

S = % shrinkage

 

9.3. Dimensional Stability to Solvent

Dimensional stability to solvent may be determined in the same manner as described for dimensional stability to water, but by using a solvent such as 1 - 1 - 1 Trichloroethane instead of water. This alternate method is not recommended for use on fabrics unless indicated by cleanability code as "S" or "WS".

NOTE: 1 - 1 - 1 - Trichloroethane is toxic and usual precautions for handling chlorinated solvents should be taken. It should be used only under ventilated conditions. The solvent is non - flammable.

 

 

10.0 ELONGATION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

10.1. Woven Upholstery

10.1.1 Test Methods

Discussion:

Due to equipment constraints, some labs are unable to perform Method UFS 1979 12. Consequently, variations of ASTM Method 5034 are being used as an alternate method. No correlation has been developed between the two methods.

Companies using other methods need to do their own correlation and calibration testing to have data which is meaningful for a buyer/seller agreement.

10.1.1.1.Reference ASTM D5034 for description of apparatus, sampling instructions, preparation of specimens, and test procedure.

 

10.1.1.2.UES 1979 - 12

Preparation of Specimens:

Test specimens 3 inches in width and 16 inches in length shall be cut for this test method. Two sets of three specimens each are required, one set for warp elongation, having the longer dimension parallel to the warp yarns, and the other set for filling elongation, having the longer dimension parallel to the filling yarns. No two specimens for warp elongation shall contain the same warp yarns, nor for filling elongation, the same filling yarns. Specimens shall be representative of the roll or piece to be rested. They shall be Cut no less than 4 inches from the selvage.

 

Testing Machines:

One of the following testing machines shall be used and conform to the specifications outlined under ASTM designation: D 76 - Specification for Tensile Testing Machines for Textiles.

Constant Rate of Extension (CRE) - a testing machine in which the rate of increase of specimen length is uniform with time.

Constant Rate of Traverse (CRT) - a testing machine in which the pulling clamp moves at a uniform rate and the force is applied through the other clamp, which moves appreciably to actuate a weighing mechanism, causing a rate of increase of force which is usually not constant and is dependent on the extension characteristics of the specimen at any applied force.

 

 

10.0. ELONGATION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

 

Test Parameters:

1. The machine shall be equipped with a suitable autographic recording device.

2. The crosshead speed shall be 6" +/1-1/4" per minute.

3. The distance between the clamps shall be 12 inches (in order to determine the inches stretch per foot of fabric.

4. The jaws of the clamps shall measure 1 " by 3" with the longer dimension perpendicular to the direction of application of the load.

 

Test Procedure:

1. Clamp the specimen in the upper jaws of the testing machine.

2. Clamp a 6 ounce auxiliary weight to the lower end of the specimen so that the weight will hang below the lower jaws and swing freely to remove any slack in the specimen.

3. Clamp the specimen in the lower jaws.

4. Start the machine and run until a minimum force of 10 pounds has been applied.

5. The curve of inches in length vs. pounds of force is recorded on the chart by the autographic recording device.

6. Findings shall be recorded in accordance with the acceptance level.

 

Evaluation and Calculation:

1. Elongation is calculated by tracing the elongation curve of the test specimen to the 10 pound force line (abscissa). The corresponding reading along the ordinate denotes the elongation in inches per foot of fabric for a 3 inch width specimen under 10 pounds of force.

2. Elongation can be expressed in percent of stretch by using the following formula: P = (S x 100) / 12 P = % Stretch S = Stretch of one foot of cloth measured in inches

Example: P = (.18 x 100) / 12 = 1.5% stretch at 10 pounds pull over a 3 inch width.

 

Acceptance Level:

The m~ I mum allowable elongation is 1.0% and the maximum allowable elongation is 5.0% for woven upholstery fabrics.

 

 

10.0. ELONGATION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

 

10.2. Knit Upholstery

Elongation and Set Test Method:

Scope:

For knit upholstery fabrics, the test method herein described shall be used to determine elongation and set. This method has been successfully used to measure consistencies of elongation of knit fabrics from shipment to shipment. The method also been found to be a reliable procedure for determining cutting patterns.

Purpose:

The purpose of this test is to provide a written procedure for determining the stretch characteristics of a fabric under stress and the amount of set that is taken after the stress is removed.

Equipment (See appendix):

1. One support base with support rod.

2. One support rod clamp.

3. One "C" clamp (3").

4. One 1/4" steel rod approximately 30" long.

5. Clamping mechanism (two pairs) 14" long by 1" high by 1 1/4" thick with wingnuts for securing specimen.

A. Top clamp - equipped with approximately 5/16" eyes on each end to be used in conjunction with 1 4" steel rod and support rod clamp.

B. Bottom lamp - equipped with approximately 20" of 1/8" steel cable and small pulley with an eye.

C. One weight (10 1/4 pounds) with hook.

NOTE: The combination of the weight and lower clamp shall equal 15 pounds.

Specimen Preparation:

1. Cut one specimen in both the wale and course direction. The size of each specimen shall be 3" by 16'

2. Lay out the specimen without tension on a flat surface, care being taken that the material is fir _ from wrinkles or creases.

3. A distance o. 12" is to be marked effort the specimen leaving approximately 2~ on each end.

 

 

 

10.0. ELONGATION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

 

Test Procedure:

1. Insert specimen in the upper clamp so that the edge of the specimen is in line with the upper

edge of the clamp.

Insert specimen in the lower clamp so that the edge of the specimen is in line with the lower

edge of the clamp.

3. Slowly release lower clamp to cause tension on specimen.

4. Insert hook of weight into eye of small pulley and slowly release weight. DO NOT ALLOW A SUDDEN DROP.

5. Leave fifteen (15) pound load suspended for fifteen (15) minutes.

6. Measure distance between the marks on the specimen under stress. Convert to percent and report as "percent stretch.

7. Remove specimen from clamps and lay it on a flat surface for fifteen (15) minutes.

8. Measure distance between the marks on the specimen. Convert to percent and report as "percent set"

Acceptance Level:

There is not enough information on this method to set any standards or tolerances. For this reason the Joint Industry Standards Committee strongly endorses the use of this method for knit fabrics to generate data and "field history" to be used as a basis in the future development of standards and guidelines.

 

 

ELONGATION - SET TEST APPARATUS

11.0. FLAMMABILITY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

11.1. Introduction

The commentary on furniture flammability in this publication is intended to be relatively general and will lack the specific details necessary to manufacture either furniture or furniture raw materials to meet specific flammability specifications. This is because the furniture flammability specifications and requirements are so detailed, complex, and all encompassing that separate, dedicated pieces of literature and information are required for each flammability specification. It is also recommended that before any efforts are made to make furniture or furniture components to comply with specific flammability specifications or requirements, involvement of legal counsel would be prudent. For more specific details on flammability issues, contact the agency involved in the legislation, the state involved in the legislation, and/or the UFAC Technical Director.

11.2. The UFAC Program

In 1978, the Upholstered Furniture Action Council (UFAC) implemented a voluntary program through the upholstery industry in the United States. The major thrust of the program was to provide the technology to make furniture which was less prone to ignite when exposed to lighted cigarettes and other smoking materials.

Prior to 1978, UFAC developed test methods for furniture raw materials, test criteria, and furniture construction methods using raw materials which met the UFAC test criteria. UFAC then developed methodology for raw material suppliers to use to certify that their raw materials met the UFAC criteria developed a compliance cross check program for the furniture manufacturers, a plant visitation program to help with compliance, a technical committee and laboratory alliance to attack new problems as they might arise, and methodology to follow the changes in flammability requirements throughout the world.

The UFAC program also involves education of retailers and the general public to the necessity and viability of the UFAC program. There are many retailers who specify that all of their upholstery should m t the UFAC requirements.

11.3. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Tests for Upholstered Furniture

 

The NFPA has adopted d the UFAC test as NFPA-260. While the NFPA-260 test is a virtual clone of the UFAC test, there are no construction criteria included in the NFPA-260 test. However, since most: of the furniture manufacturers in the United States already make UFAC compliant furniture. it is likely that the UFAC construction criteria will be used in virtually every circumstance when NFPA-260 is specified.

The NFPA has another furniture related cigarette test, i.e., NFPA-261. NFPA-261 is a mockup test using a mockup :cross section which is said to describe the cross section of the actual piece of furniture. NFPA-261 is similar to the test used by The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA).

 

 

11.0. FLAMMABILITY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

As a general rule, furniture made to the UFAC criteria using UFAC complying raw materials will pass the requirements of NFPA 261 and NFPA-260.

At this time, NFPA is developing a full scale mockup test for upholstered furniture. This test will be similar to the oxygen depletion calorimeter test described in California Technical Bulletin 133. While the NFPA full scale mockup test is not at this writing published as an approved test, approval and publication are forthcoming.

 

11.4. Underwriters Laboratories Furniture Related Tests

Underwriters Laboratories has a full scale test for upholstered furniture. This test is similar to the oxygen depletion calorimeter test described in California Technical Bulletin 133, and U.L. has much experience in performing the test and interpreting the results. The Underwriters Laboratories test goes under the description of UL 1056. The UL test is also very similar to the upcoming NFPA full scale mockup test.

 

11.5. The Boston Fire Code

Since the early 1980's, the city of Boston has required that all furniture for public buildings should meet the Boston Fire Department Specifications, i.e., The Boston Fire Code. The Boston Fire Code calls for testing individual components of upholstered furniture in an open flame test. However, since the inception of California Technical Bulletin 133, the city of Boston will accept furniture which passes California Technical Bulletin 133 provided test data from TB-133is made available. To be certain, individual companies shipping into Boston should double check with the Boston Fire Code authorities.

 

11.6. California Technical Bulletin 133

Of all the flammability tests for upholstered furniture in the United States, California Technical Bulletin 133 (TB-133) is, by far, the most severe. TB-133 was developed in California for public occupancies such as jails, prisons, nursing homes, convalescent homes, and the public gathering places in hotels having ten or more seating units (but not the sleeping rooms in hotels).

TB-133 is not a component test; it is a test for full scale furniture or a mockup of full scale furniture. The furniture or mockup in question is placed in a room with the proper instrumentation and ignited with a rectangular gas burner radiating approximately 16 kilowatts of heat. The ignition source (burner) is placed over the seat of the test piece and allowed to burn for 80 seconds. After 80 seconds, the burner is removed from the test furniture, and the flammability events after removal of the burner are measured. Currently, there are two optional separate sets of requirement criteria to pass TB-133. The first option measures and specifies weight loss, smoke generated, carbon monoxide generated, and temperatures at the four foot level from the burning chair and temperatures at the ceiling above the burning chair.

 

 

11.0. FLAMMABILITY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

The second set of options utilize a modern theory of heat measurement called oxygen depletion calorimeter. Oxygen depletion calorimeter theory states that the amount of heat released from any burning material s directly proportional to the oxygen consumed by that fire. In the oxygen depletion calorimeter option, only two criteria are specified: the total heat release in a 10 minute period. and the peak heat release value at any time during the duration of the test.

The American Furniture Manufacturers Association has adopted TB-133 for furniture manufactured for public occupancies. TB-133 became law in California in March of 1992, and several other states have already adopted TB-133. In all probability, all states will adopt TB-133 as their standard for public occupancies.

It should be carefully. noted that stringent and difficult tests and requirements such as California Technical Bulletin 113 are strictly designed for public occupancies.

 

11.7. The Standard for the United Kingdom

In the late 1980's, the British Parliament passed legislation banning the use of conventional polyurethane foam in he manufacture of furniture for use in the entirety of the United Kingdom. This legislation mandated the use of an existing but unproved standard developed by The British Standards Institute (ESI), i.e. BS-5852. This standard utilizes a number of ignition sources depending on which component of the furniture is being tested. These ignition sources are cigarettes, a small propane flame, and various size wooden cribs.

While the BS-5852 test has not gained much acceptance in the European Common Market communities, some . American furniture manufacturers have made furniture for export to the United Kingdom and thus must manufacture furniture which meets the BS-5852 requirements.

 

11.8. The European Common Market Requirements

The European Come On Market countries studied the problem of furniture flammability and came up with the recommendation that only a cigarette ignition test similar to the cigarette test in BS-5852 should be recommended for use at this time (1991). The study strongly stated that the open flame tests , were so complex that they did not believe a standard could or should be developed and proposed at this time (1991). It was the opinion of the international group studying the problem hat it would take three to five years to develop a meaningful open flame test.

 

12.0. FLAWS & DEFECTS

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

12.1. Definitions

Face Flaws and Defects: Any visible condition in the fabric which deviates from the original standard sample on which the decision to purchase was made. In cases of question or referee, the visible condition (flaw or defect) must also be such that it produces an objectionable appearance in the final upholstered piece.

Back Flaws and Defects: Any irregularity or variation of backcoating which would adversely affect the durability or appearance of the fabric face.

Warp or Wale Direction Flaws and Defects: Flaws parallel to the selvages and greater than 6.0 inches in length.

Filling or Course Direction or Spot Flaws: Flaws that when measured parallel to the selvage are less than 6.0 inches in length.

12.2. Identification of Flaws and Defects

Warp or wale direction flaws shall to be flagged with a yellow marker at the beginning and end of the flaw. The markers shall be placed in the fabric selvage.

Two or more flaws or defects within the same lengthwise yard shall be considered a warp or wale direction flaw and flagged accordingly with yellow markers.

Filling or course direction flaws and spot flaws shall be flagged with a red marker placed in the selvage.

12.3. Standard

The change of standards for allowable defects approved by the Committee at the May, 1993 meeting wig be phased in over a one year period. For calendar year 1994, the standards will as follows:

Non Pile Fabrics: First quality merchandise shall be merchandise in which the occurrence of flaws or defects is no more than an average of one flaw in every 8 linear yards, for a total of no more than 6 flaws in any 50 yard piece.

Pile Fabrics: First quality merchandise shall be merchandise in which the occurrence of flaws or defect is not more than an average of one flaw in every 6 linear yards, for a total of no more than 8 flaws in any 50 yard piece.

 

 

12.0. FLAWS & DEFECTS

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Beginning January. 1995. the standards for allowable defects will be as follows:

Non Pile Fabrics: First quality merchandise shall be merchandise in which the occurrence of flaws or defects is no more than an average of one flaw in every 9 linear yards, for a total of no more than 5 flaws in any 50 yard piece.

Pile Fabrics: First quality merchandise shall be merchandise in which the occurrence of flaws or defect is not more than an average of one flaw in every 7 linear yards, for a total of no more than 7 flaws in any 50 yard piece.

No roll shall contain more than two separate pieces within the roll, and the minimum piece or cur length shall be five flawless yards of the same dye lot. The cut or seam within a two piece roll shall be counted as a filling or course direction flaw.

 

12.4. Allowances for Flaws and Defects

Warp or Wale Direction Flaws: The exact yardage between all yellow flags shall be deducted from the gross yardage.

Filling or Course Direction and Spot Flaws: There will be no yardage deducted for flaws marine ~ with red flags.

 

13.0 GENERAL ROLL CONDITION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Rolls shall be wound so as to minimize telescoping, wrinkling, pile marring, or any other condition affecting the visual quality of the fabric. Any damage due to poor roll condition that cannot be removed by the fabric manufacturer’s recommended method is unacceptable. It should be recognized that the manufacturer's roll packaging affords various degrees of protection to the fabric; thus it is recommended that damage prone fabrics be stored in their original shipping containers until ready for use. If rolls are removed from specie packaging, they should be handled and stored in a manner simulating the packaging method use by the fabric manufacturer. Any fabric damage resulting from the removal of specially packaged g nods from their original containers for storage by the fabric buyer shall be his responsibility.

13.0 GENERAL ROLL CONDITION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Since "direction of lay" of pile fabrics can create apparent shading problems, finishing procedures and handling shall be such that the direction of lay of the pile is consistent within the roll and from roll to roll. Packaging, storage, shipping, and handling of pile fabrics shall be such that pile distortion within a roll is at a minimum. No curling or wrinkling should occur in any direction when the fabric is spread, without distortion, on the cutting table.

All printing or marking on the fabric shall be on the back of the fabric or on the selvages. Strike - or show through of any degree is unacceptable under any condition of use. Dyes or inks used for printing or marking shall not bleed, migrate, or streak under any condition of fabric use.

 

14.0. PATTERN REPEAT

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

14.1 Method of Measurement

Lay the fabric without tension on a horizontal surface. Measure from center point to center point of any two contiguous pattern repeats to determine pattern length. A minimum of four measurements shall be made in a continuous length of 50 yards.

14.2. Standards

14.2.1.Woven Upholstery

Variation From Roll to Roll:

For woven fabrics having pattern repeats of 13 inches or more, the variation from the specified repeat from roll to roll shall be no greater than + or - .50 inch, a total maximum variation of 1.0 inch.

For woven fabrics having pattern repeats less than 13 inches, the variation from the specified repeat from roll to roll shall be no greater than + or - 0.25 inch, a total maximum variation of 0.50 inch.

For woven fabrics having pattern repeats greater than 27.0 inches, the maximum variation shall be agreed upon at the time of purchase.

 

 

14.0. PATTERN REPEAT

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Variation Within a Roll:

For woven fabrics having pattern repeats of 13 inches or more, the variation of actual measurements within a roll shall be no greater than 0.50 inch total variation.

For woven fabrics having pattern repeats of 13 inches or less, the variation of actual measurements within a roll shall be no greater than 0.25 inch total variation.

For woven fabric having pattern repeats greater than 27.0 inches, the maximum variation shall be agreed upon at the tome of purchase.

 

14.2.2.Knit Upholstery

Variation From Roll to Roll and Within a Roll:

For knit fabrics having pattern repeats of 10 inches or less, the variation within a roll or from roll to roll shall be no greater than + or - 5.0 %.

For knit fabrics having pattern repeats greater than 10 inches, the allowable variation shall be agreed upon at the time of purchase.

Examples:

In the following illustrations, the shaded bar represents the range of actual pattern repeat measurements

 

Example 1:

For a fabric having a specified pattern repeat of 15 inches the following would be true:

Rolls 1 and 2 meet the standard fro roll to roll variation. Rolls 3 and 4 do not meet the standard since some measurements fall outside the acceptable range for roll to roll variation. Rolls 5 and 6 do not meet the standard because ~e difference between the longest repeat measured and the shortest repeat measured exceed the acceptable range for variation within a roll.

 

 

14.0. PATTERN REPEAT

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Example 2:

For a fabric having a specified pattern repeat of 8 inches, the following would be true:

Rolls 1 and 2 would meet the standard for roll to roll and within roll variation. Roll 3 would not meet the

standard since some measurements fall out the acceptable range for roll to roll variation. Roll 4 would not meet

the standard because the difference between the longest repeat measured and the shortest repeat measured exceeds

the acceptable range of variation within a roll.

15.0. YARN COUNT

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

15.1. Yarn Count In Woven Fabric

In patterned woven fabrics, the pick count shall be controlled to maintain the pattern repeat variation limits (see PATTERN REPEAT).

Picks per inch on most upholstery fabrics can be determined by counting one inch with a pick glass. Count in several places to insure consistency. Reference ASTM D3775 for description of apparatus, sampling and conditioning instructions, and test procedure.

Inconsistent ends or picks per inch can also affect shade, fabric integrity, overall appearance, and field performance.

 

 

 

 

15.0. YARN COUNT

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

15.2. Yarn Count In Knitted Fabric

In knit fabrics, the allowable variance of courses per inch shall be 10 %. There is no specification for the allowable variance of wales per inch.

The method for counting wales and courses per inch shall be through the use of a pick glass or similar device. Count the number of wales or courses in six contiguous inches and then average to report the average number per inch.

Inconsistent wales or courses per inch can also affect shade, fabric integrity, overall appearance, and field performance.

 

16.0. PILLING

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

There is no acceptable test method pilling of woven and knit upholstery fabrics which is suitable for direct comparison to actual use. Excessive in use pilling is nonetheless undesirable.

17.0. RETAILER APPLIED FABRIC TREATMENTS (RAFT)

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

In cooperative effort to eliminate possible problems, suppliers of RAFT products, furniture manufacturers, fabric manufacturers, and other members of the JIFSC developed resolutions regarding the use of RAFT treatments on upholstered furniture. These resolutions were presented to the American Furniture Manufacturers Association's (AFMA) Board of Directors. The AFMA Board of Directors approved the following resolutions:

 

 

17.0. RETAILER APPLIED FABRIC TREATMENTS (RAFT)

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

RESOLUTION 1: Spot test in a hidden area for bleeding or color change prior to RAFT treating

the entire piece of furniture.

 

RESOLUTION 2: Request from your RAFT supplier proper application techniques and disclose

such to personnel responsible for application.

 

RESOLUTION 3: Over application can cause damage to fabrics, therefore, the RAFT

manufacturer's recommendations should be followed.

 

RESOLUTION 4: Allow treated furniture to thoroughly dry before repackaging or consumer use.

A fifth resolution was adopted for furniture manufacturers.

 

RESOLUTION 5: We highly recommend that the furniture manufacturers include the proper colorfastness code letter(s) on each piece of furniture, which could, to eliminate costs, be included on the work order ticket.

 

 

18.0. ROLL LENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

18.1. Scope

The recommended methods for the measurement of fabric length are applicable to rolls or bolts of fabric.

18.2. Test Methods

ASTM D3773, Option A - Hand Method is the referee method.

 

ASTM D3773, Option C - Clock Method.

18.3. Conditioning

Condition the specimens as directed in Practice D1776. When full rolls or bolts of fabric cannot be properly conditioned in a reasonable time, perform the tests without conditioning and report the actual conditions prevailing at the time of the test.

 

18.0. ROLL LENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

18.4. Sample

Sample as directed in the material specification or as agreed upon by the purchaser and seller.

 

18.5. Calibration

Measure a known length of canvas or other stable, low elongation (less than 2% in either direction) fabric through the measuring device.

 

18.6. Standard

The average roll length should be no less than 30 yards. The roll shall contain two pieces maximum with the smallest piece no less than five flawless yards of fabric of the same dye lot. The minimum roll length acceptable will be 15 yards, and each manufacturer shall attempt to keep the short rolls to a minimum. The maximum roll length is governed by attempts to achieve the best cutting efficiencies of the fabric taking into consideration manufacturing. handling, and storage limitations. Below is a reference guide of maximum roll lengths as required of various weight fabrics to achieve an average of 80 pounds.

 

Fabric weight per linear Yard Maximum roll length
16.0 oz. or less 80 yards
16.1 oz. 20.00z. 60 yards
20.1 oz. - 28.0 oz. 50 yards
28.1 oz. or more 40 yards

 

Maximum roll lengths for sliver knits or similar bulky constructions.

 

Fabric weight per linear yard Maximum roll length
16.0 oz. or less 50 yards
16.1 oz. - 23.0 oz. 40 yards
28.1 oz. or more 30 yards

 

The difference between the manufacturer’s stated gross yardage and the user's measured gross yardage shall not exceed +/-2%.

 

 

18.0. ROLL LENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

18.7. The Joint Industry Fabric Standards Committee has observed and studied in detail the problems involved in accurate and reproducible measurement of the length of upholstery fabrics.

The extremely wide range of constructions, yarns, basic fibers, and fiber blends compound measurement problems significantly. In addition, temperature and humidity add to the plethora of factors which make accurate and reproducible fabric measurement more difficult. Inter laboratory experiments in measuring upholstery fabrics in several manufacturing plants and statistical analysis of the resultant dare have conclusively proven that accurate and reproducible measurement of upholstery fabrics is difficult.

Because of the inherent tendencies of textiles, both the fabric manufacturer and the fabric user should keep constant vigil for trends in variances in either direction. For example, if the variances from a certain manufacturer on certain constructions always are at, say, minus l .8 %, the manufacturer should be contacted for cross calibration of equipment. The very heart of the intent of a plus or minus tolerance is to, over a period of time, average out to zero or nearly zero.

It should be noted also that under some specific predetermined circumstances, measurement tolerances of plus or minus 1.0% can be attained. This situation can only be attained by careful statistical correlation measurement equipment and philosophies between user and manufacturer.

The Joint Industry Fabric Standards Committee is also recommending the use of an inspection form for the uniform documentation of measurements of fabrics. (This form also contains adequate space for l listing of and measurement of flaws and defects.)

19.0. ROLL TAG INFORMATION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

On each roll of fabric there shall be a tag attached containing the following information:

1. Mill pattern

2. Mill color

3. Roll identification number

4. Lot number

5. Inspector identification (optional)

6. Gross yards (optional)

7. Allowance (in y arcs)

8. Net yards

9. Surface treatment (Scotchgard™, Teflon™, etc.)

 

20.0. ROLL WIDTH

 

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

20.1. Scope

This method for the measurement of fabric width is applicable to rolls and bolts of fabric and to short specimens removed from a roll or bolt.

20.2. Reference ASIA D3774 for definitions, conditioning instructions, and summary of test method.

20.3. Method of Measurement

The width shall be measured by first laying the fabric out flat on a table with no tension or elongation. The width shall then be measured with a good quality measuring tape, measuring the usable fabric width between the selvages.

20.4. Standard

The fabric shall contain no less than 54 inches of usable fabric width or no more than 60 inches of total fabric width (including selvages) when measured in accordance with the recommended test method.

21.0. SEAM BREAKING STRENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

21.1. Introduction

Since much of the manufacturing of a piece of upholstered furniture involves sewing the fabric parts together, any particular fabric is only as strong as its seam breaking strength. Therefore, a minimum specification for this characteristic is of benefit to the consumer in assuring that their furniture will not rupture at the sewn seams.

21.2. Factors Affecting Seam Breaking Strength

Seam breaking strength depends upon the factors in fabric design and manufacturing including:

(1) Use of yarns with low individual tensile strength.

(2) Low yarn count. i.e. picks and ends.

(3) Types of weaves

(4) Type and amours of backcoating.

(5) Amount of needle punch.

 

 

21.0. SEAM BREWING STRENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Seam breaking strength can be affected by the variables in the furniture manufacturing operation including:

(1) Patterning, cutting, and sewing to allow sufficient seam allowance.

(2) Sewing machine adjustment, maintenance, and operation to insure sufficient stitches per inch

and proper thread tension.

(3) Selection and use of proper thread.

(4) Selection and use of appropriate needle for the fabric construction being sewn.

Sewing with a damaged needle can drastically reduce seam integrity. Therefore the condition of needles should be closely monitored and a program for routine replacement should be in place.

21.3. Test Method

Reference ASTM D4034 for description of apparatus, sampling instructions, and test procedure.

21.4. Standard

The minimum seam breaking strength of all woven and knit fabrics shall be 50 pounds.

22.0. SEAM INTEGRITY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

22.1. Introduction

Seam integrity, especially with regard to seat cushions, is one of the most important physical characteristics of an upholstered fabric. Many parts of a piece of upholstered furniture are held together by sewn seams. Historically, seat cushion seam failures have accounted for a considerable percentage of furniture manufacturers' field returns. To a lesser degree, seam failures may also occur in back pillow, attached backs, or even in other sewn parts. Therefore, testing and minimum specifications for this characteristic are important to the consumer so that they can be assured their furniture will not suffer seam failures.

22.2. Types and In Use Causes of Seam Failure

The predominant types of failure occurring at seams include: (1) Yarn movement or slippage without complete seam opening. (2) Complete seam opening with intact stitch line.

 

22.0. SEAM INTEGRITY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

The above mentioned types of seam failures are caused by:

(1) Needle cutting yarns in the upholstery fabric itself.

(2) Breakage of the thread forming the stitch line.

(3) Yarns in the upholstery fabric rupturing at the stitch line.

(4) Raveling which allows the yarns in the upholstery fabric to pull free of the stitch line.

Forces contributing to seam failures in furniture are listed below:

(1) Static stress caused by cushion "squeeze" related to the overstuffing ratio.

(2) Dynamic stress exerted during Quiets sitting.

(3) Dynamic impact stresses caused when a person drops onto the cushion.

(4) Dynamic stress caused by movement and shifting during sitting.

In knits, needle cutting is by far the most prevalent cause for seam failures. Factors contributing

to needle cutting are listed below:

(1) Incorrect sewing needle point. (Only a light ball point needle should be used to sew knit

fabrics.)

(2) Incorrect sewing needle size. (A size 22 needle will successfully sew most knitted

Upholstery fabrics.)

(3) Damaged sewing needle.

(4) Excessive Hammering of sewing machine presser foot can damage the yarns with

which the upholstery fabric is constructed.

Factors involving upholstery fabric design and construction affect seam integrity. They include:

(1) Inadequate backcoating.

(2) Variability in yearn sizes causing difficulty in sewing a seam of uniform tension.

(3) Excessive float yarns or "pockets" in fabric construction.

(4) Low yarn count. i.e. number of picks or ends.

(5) Excessive raveling due to low yarn count or inadequate backcoating.

(6) Extremely low elongation of fabric construction.

(7) Constructions containing a substantial quantity of small continuous filament yarns with a Slick surface, to which backcoating does not adhere well.

Within a furniture manufacturing operation there are factors which can affect seam integrity,

even in those fabrics which would not otherwise exhibit problems. The items listed below are

those for which the furniture manufacturer has the ultimate responsibility to insure acceptable

seam integrity:

(1) Patterning, Cutting, and sewing to allow a seam allowance of no less than 0.5 inches.

(2) Sewing machine adjustment, maintenance, and operation to insure seven stitches per inch and proper thread tension.

(3) Selection and use of proper thread.

(4) Selection and use of appropriate needle for the fabric construction being sewn.

(5) Monitoring of needle condition and replacement of damaged needles.

(6) Proper stuffing of cushions to prevent excessive force on cushion seams due to

pressure from overstuffing.

(7) Proper application of any in house seam reinforcement techniques.

 

22.0. SEAM INTEGRITY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

22.3. Test Methods

ASTM D4033 - Determining Yarn Slippage in Sewn Seams Made from Upholstery Fabrics (Dynamic Fatigue Method) shall be the referee test method and will be used for acceptance testing.

 

ASTM D4034 - Resistance to Yarn Slippage at the Sewn Seam in Woven Upholstery Fabrics Plain, Tufted, or Flocked shall be used for screening purposes only. It is recommended that ASTM D4034 not be used as the only method of evaluation seam integrity, but that the results should be evaluated relative to Dynamic Seam Fatigue results.

22.4. Standard

When tested in accordance with ASTM D4033, fabrics shall not exhibit more than 0.125 inch opening or yarn slippage on either side of the seam for the duration of the test (5000 cycles).

When tested in accordance with ASTM D4034, the minimum standard is 25 pounds.

22.5. Annex

See the accompanying Table 1 for suggested fabric uses based on various degrees of seam failure.

See the accompanying Table 2 for descriptions on in use application terms.

TABLE A1

SUGGESTED USES FOR VARIOUS DEGREES OF FAILURE

DEGREE OF FAILURE

SUGGESTED USE

1000 cycles or less Do not use in upholstered furniture.
1001 to 1500 cycles Use only with reinforced seams (as defined in 3.9 and then only in "light" in-use, household applications (as described in Table A2).
1501 to 2500 cycles Use only with reinforced seams and then only in "moderate" in use, household applications (as described in Table A2).
2501 to 4000 cycles Use only with reinforced seams and then only in "medium duty, household applications (as described in Table A2).
4001 to 5000 cycles It is advisable to reinforce the seams. Fabric can then be used in "normal" in-use, household applications (as described in Table A2).
above 5000 cycles Seam reinforcement is not needed and the fabric can be used for "normal" in-use, household applications (as described in Table A2).

 

 

22.0. SEAM INTEGRITY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

TABLE A2

DESCRIPTIONS OF IN USE APPLICATION TERMS

APPLICATION DESCRIPTION

"Light", In Use, Household Applications Applications where the upholstered furniture is used mainly for decorative rather than functional purposes; for example, several times a month.
"Moderate", In Use, Household Applications Applications where the upholstered furniture is used infrequently, such as, for example, once or twice a week in a "formal" living room.
"Medium Duty", In Use, Household Applications Applications where the upholstered furniture is used occasionally, every day, for example, one or two hours daily.
"Normal", In Use, Household Applications Applications where the upholstered furniture is used constantly for several hours or more daily, such as a TV chair or sofa.

 

NOTE: No household furniture fabrics are designed or intended for abusive applications.

23.0. SHEDDING

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

There is not an acceptance test method for shedding of woven and knit upholstery fabrics which is suitable for direct comparison to actual use. Excessive in use shedding is nonetheless undesirable.

24.0. STAIN REPELLENCY

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

24.1. Test Procedure

Reference the 3M Water Repellency Test IV and 3M Oil Repellency Test IV for test purpose, definitions, and description of apparatus, materials, and test and evaluation procedures.

24.2. Standard

All woven and knit upholstery fabrics having a mill applied, fluorocarbon based treatment shall meet the "PASS" criteria of the 3M Scotchgard™ tests.

25.0. TEAR STRENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

25.1. Woven Upholstery

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

Test Methods for Woven Upholstery Fabrics:

ASTM D2262 Tongue Tear Test Method (Referee Test Method)

 

ASTM D1424 Elmendorf Test Method

 

Classification of Fabrics When Tested in Accordance Referee Test Method:

Category I fabrics shall have a minimum tear strength of 6.0 pounds. Category II fabrics shall have a minimum tear strength of 4.5 pounds. Category III fabrics shall have a minimum tear strength of 4.0 pounds.

 

Discussion:

It shall be understood that lightweight fabrics (Category III) are generally rated "Delicate". duty. Thus, these fabrics should not be buttoned excessively nor should furniture covered with these fabrics be placed in areas of heavy use.

Due to its limited use, no minimum specification is presented for the Elmendorf Test Method. Companies using this method need to do their own correlation and calibration testing to develop data for an acceptable buyer/seller agreement.

 

 

25.0. TEAR STRENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

25.2. Knit Upholster`;

Test Methods for Knitted Upholstery:

ASTM D2262 Tongue Tear Test Method (Referee Test Method)

 

ASTM D1117, Section 14 Trapezoid Tear Method

 

Standards for Knit Upholstery:

When tested in accordance with the referee test method, the minimum tear strength shall be 4.5 pounds.

The minimum tear strength for tricot knit constructions tested by the Trapezoid Test Method shall be 10 pounds.

26.0. TENSILE STRENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

26.1. Defection

Tensile strength represents the maximum amount of resistance required for the deformation and rupture of a fabric. This is normally expressed in pounds per square inch (PSI).

The tensile strength of a fabric is determined by the amount of force it takes to cause the fabric to rupture. This is called the breaking load.

26.2. Importance of Tensile Strength to Upholstered Furniture Manufacturers and Consumers

 

Adequate tensile strength is required by the furniture manufacturer to insure no fabric ruptures during the upholstery process. Adequate tensile strength is also needed to withstand stress caused by filling materials in cushion. arms, and backs. Higher compression polyurethane foams can exert a tremendous amount of pressure a fabrics, especially in tight fitting "clean" styles. This pressure is magnified when a person sirs on the cushion.

Adequate tensile strength insures that the consumer, under normal use, will not have a problem with the upholstery fabric rupturing.

 

26.0. TENSILE STRENGTH

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

26.3. Importance of Tensile Strength to Fabric Manufacturers

In the warp beaming operation, adequate yarn tensile strength reduces the number of yarn breaks and thus the number of knots or yarn splices, allowing more continuous runs and consequently better efficiencies.

During the weaving process, adequate tensile strength insures fewer start ups, less broken picks, etc. all of which can contribute to the number of defects in a piece of fabric.

26.4. Test Method

Reference ASTM D5034, Section 16, Grab Method for description of test method.

26.5. Standard

The minimum tensile strength of all woven and knit fabrics shall be 50 pounds per square inch.

27.0. FIBER MIGRATION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

27.1. Scope

This test method is intended to provide a common procedure for furniture manufacturers and textile mills for identifying potential fiber migration problems. This procedure will help predict which fabrics will develop problems with fiber migration.

27.2. Equipment

1. A typical household clothes dryer (Maximum drum size 26~ diameter) with the lint trap and heat

disconnected.

2. Six (6) bean bags with the total weight of about 2 pounds.

3. Two (2) tennis balls.

 

27.0. FIBER MIGRATION

Joint Industry Fabric Standards and Guidelines  
Published: 6/94

Supersedes: 1 1/87

 

27.3. Test Procedure

The following test procedure shall be used:

1. Cut the fabric sample 8" X 15 1/2"

2. Fold the fabric sample in half so that the face of each half is touching.

3. Sew three sides or the fabric sample with 7 stitches per inch and 1/2" seam allowance, leaving one side of the sample open to allow stuffing.

4. Turn the sample so the fabric is face out.

5. Stuff the sample with 25 grams of fiber fill.

6. Sew the final seam and place the pillow in the dryer with 2 tennis balls, 6 bean bags, and 9 additional test pillows.

7. Tumble the samples in the dryer for one hour.

8. Remove the sample from the dryer and place the sample against a dark background.

9. Count the total fibers protruding through the surface of the sample and record the results.

27.4. Grading Criteria

Zero Migration = no ends of fiber migrated through to the surface of the test pillow

Slight Migration =: to 2 ends of fiber migrated through to the surface of the test pillow

Medium Migration = 3 to 4 ends of fiber migrated through to the surface of the test pillow

Heavy Migration = ~ or more ends of fiber migrated through to the surface of the test pillow

The grading criteria should not be used for acceptance testing, but rather as an indicator of potential fiber migration in tested fabrics.

If the test indicates the likelihood of fiber migration, agreements can be made between purchaser and supplier as to whether a lining, additional backcoating, or a different fiber is necessary in order that the fabric may perform satisfactorily in the end use.